‘Real‐world’ compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e‐liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure
The aim of this article is to compare the effects of high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, fixed versus adjustable power. Also to define the interaction between these on vaping behaviour, subjective effects, nicotine intake andexposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping daily.
This study took place in London and the South East England, between September 2016 and February 2017 with the participation of 20 experienced e-cigarette users.
The Authors come to the conclusion that the use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g. higher number and duration of puffs) and increases in negative affect, urge to vape and formaldehyde exposure.